P2X ion channels
The P2X receptor family is a purinergic receptor activated by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and regulates pain, inflammation, and immune responses. The P2X receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel that opens when ATP binds to the receptor, allowing for an influx of calcium and sodium ions into the cell. The P2X receptor is found in various tissues, including the brain, heart, skeletal muscle, and immune cells, and plays a vital role in many physiological processes.
They have been implicated in several diseases, including migraine, asthma, and cancer. The P2X7 receptor has been linked to autoimmune disorders like multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriasis. P2X7 receptors are also involved in the development of osteoarthritis. P2X4 and P2X7 receptors have been implicated in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, respectively.