GABA ion channels
GABA channels are formed by two proteins, called α and β, that allow ions such as chloride and potassium to pass through. This allows the neuron to become more or less excitable, depending on the ion concentration in the surrounding environment. GABA channels help regulate the firing of neurons and can be affected by drugs such as benzodiazepines, which can increase their activity.
GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain and therefore plays a role in many neurological and psychiatric disorders. Disruption of GABAergic neurotransmission has been implicated in a number of diseases, including anxiety disorders, depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, epilepsy, and Parkinson’s disease. In some cases, drugs have been developed to target GABA receptors, such as benzodiazepines which are used to treat anxiety and insomnia. Additionally, the use of GABA supplements for anxiety and depression has been explored, although evidence for their efficacy is limited.