Topoisomerase Inhibitors Addressing Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Gram-Negative Bacteria
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Since their discovery over 5 decades ago, quinolone antibiotics have found enormous success as broad-spectrum agents that exert their activity through dual inhibition of bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Increasing rates of resistance, driven largely by target-based mutations in the GyrA/ParC quinolone resistance determining region, have eroded the utility and threaten the future use of this vital class of antibiotics. Herein we describe the discovery and optimization of a series of 4-(aminomethyl)quinolin-2(1H)-ones, exemplified by 34, that inhibit bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV and display potent activity against ciprofloxacin-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. X-ray crystallography reveals that 34 occupies the classical quinolone binding site in the topoisomerase IV-DNA cleavage complex but does not form significant contacts with residues in the quinolone resistance determining region.