Systematical Evaluation of the Structure-Cardiotoxicity Relationship of 7-Azaindazole-Based PI3K Inhibitors Designed by Bioisosteric Approach
Cardiovascular Toxicology 23, no. 11–12 (2023): 364–76
A growing concern of cardiotoxicity induced by PI3K inhibitors has raised the requirements to evaluate the structure-cardiotoxicity relationship (SCR) in the development process of novel inhibitors. Based on three bioisosteric 7-azaindazole-based candidate inhibitors namely FD269, FD268 and FD274 that give same order of inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) magnitude against PI3Ks, in this work, we proposed to systematically evaluate the SCR of 7-azaindazole-based PI3K inhibitors designed by bioisosteric approach. The 24-h lethal concentrations 50% (LC50) of FD269, FD268 and FD274 against zebrafish embryos were 0.35, 4.82 and above 50 μM (not detected), respectively. Determination of the heart rate, pericardial and yolk-sac areas and vascular malformation confirmed the remarkable reduction in the cardiotoxicity of from FD269 to FD268 and to FD274. The IC50s of all three compounds against the hERG channel were tested on the CHO cell line that constitutively expressing hERG channel, which were all higher than 20 μM. The transcriptomic analysis revealed that FD269 and FD268 induced the up-regulation of noxo1b, which encodes a subunit of an NADPH oxidase evoking the oxidative stress. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry tests confirmed the structure-dependent attenuation of the overproduction of ROS and cardiac apoptosis. Our results verified the feasibility of bioisosteric replacement to attenuate the cardiotoxicity of 7-azaindazole-based PI3K inhibitors, suggesting that the screening for PI3K inhibitors with both high potency and low cardiotoxicity from bioisosteres would be a beneficial trial.
Keywords: Q4 2023