Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-amine derivatives as selective Btk inhibitors with improved pharmacokinetic properties for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a Tec family kinase with a well-defined role in the B cell receptor (BCR) and Fcγ receptor (FcR) signaling pathways, which makes it a uniquely attractive target for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We reported a series of compounds bearing 7H-pyrrolo [2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-amine scaffold that potently inhibited Btk in vitro. Analysis of the structure-activity relationships (SAR) and drug-like profiles led to the discovery of the optimal compound B16. B16 preferentially inhibited Btk (IC50 = 21.70 ± 0.82 nM) over closely related kinases with moderate selectivity. Cell-based tests also confirmed that B16 significantly inhibited Btk Y223 auto-phosphorylation and PLCγ2 Y1217 phosphorylation. MTT revealed that B16 displayed weak suppression against normal LO2, HEK293 and THP-1 cell lines with IC50 values over 30 μM. Moreover, B16 showed very weak potential to block the hERG channel (IC50 = 11.10 μM) in comparison to ibrutinib (IC50 = 0.97 μM). Owing to its favorable physicochemical properties (ClogP = 2.53, aqueous solubility ≈ 0.1 mg/mL), pharmacokinetic profiles (F = 49.15%, t1/2 = 7.02 h) and reasonable CYP450 profile, B16 exhibited potent anti-arthritis activity and similar efficacy to ibrutinib in reducing paw thickness in CIA mice. In conclusion, B16 is a potent, selective and durable inhibitor of Btk and has the potential to a safe and efficacious treatment for arthritis.