— automated patch clamp, drug discovery, Large Molecules, QPatch, QPatch II, Qube 384, Sophion
Large molecule characterization using automated patch clamp
Automated patch clamp solutions have been used for years to routinely research ion channels on large molecules. Being able to screen and characterizing large molecules on automated patch clamp is the key to ensure an efficient drug discovery process.
Today, more than 90% of all approved drugs are coming from research on small molecules, but large molecules research is rapidly rising in prominence. The importance of drug discovery already constitute the lion’s share of the top 10 selling drugs worldwide.
Large molecules have gained more attention due to their mode of action, often achieving greater target specificity and potency than small molecule drugs.
Learn more about the various classes of large molecules and ion channel research on our Qube and QPatch solutions here
— QPatch, snake venom toxins
Global academic-industry collaboration developing anti-venom antibodies
The development of snakebite antivenoms has remained largely unchanged for over a century. The tried and tested technique involved inoculating horses with snake venoms: the horse immune response generates antibodies that can neutralize the snake venom. However, these equine derived anti-venoms are time-consuming to make, can have limited efficacy and can cause immune responses in human snakebite patients.
Snakebites cause the most injuries and fatalities in developing countries, affecting some of the poorest regions in the world. A lack of research and therapeutic development led the World Health Organization to designate snakebite as a Neglected Tropical Disease in 2017.
Using the latest antibody engineering techniques and technologies Andreas Laustsen’s Tropical Pharmacology Lab, DTU, Copenhagen has approached this problem with innovative science and solutions in this much needed, but neglected, area of medicine. In a global collaboration across academia and industry with Sophion Biosciences (Denmark), IONTAS (UK) and the Instituto Clodomiro Picado (Costa Rica), they have bio-engineered antibodies to neutralise snake venom toxins.
Line Ledsgaard, a PhD student in the Laustsen lab, DTU, gave a talk on this groundbreaking work.
You can see more talks on the Tropical Pharmacology Lab’s critical anti-venom work here.
New Whitepaper: Automated Patch Clamp in Cystic Fibrosis Drug Discovery
In October 2020, Enterprise Therapeutics’ TMEM16A programme was acquired by Roche/Genentech. This acquisition was the culmination of a research and discovery journey initiated in 2014, with the goal of providing a novel treatment paradigm suitable for patients with cystic fibrosis and other muco-obstructive diseases.
In this new whitepaper, we describe how APC was instrumental in the success of Enterprise Therapeutics’ TMEM16A programme or as Martin Gosling (CEO) describes it “Automated
electrophysiology has been KEY not only in finding the chemistry start points but in supporting the programme through its entire lead optimization”.
First ever QPatch ll installation in South Korea
Sophion and SureMedical have successfully installed the first QPatch ll at SK Biopharma in South Korea. SureMedical worked closely with the new user to find the right APC solution for their needs and we are happy to say they decided on a QPatch ll system with temperature control. This solution is a perfect fit for them regarding throughput, obtaining true Giga-ohm seals in physiological solutions and being able to control the temperature accurately at the measurement sites.
Despite these Covid-19 times, installation and training went according to plan and the new users are up and running. We are sure that SK Biopharma will put their new QPatch ll to good use and continue to break new ground in drug discovery.
— drug discovery, QPatch, QPlate
QPlate, a unique design enabling high performance automated patch clamp
The unique design of our QPlates provides many advantages. Among others 100% liquid exchange, giga-seals in physiological solutions and no need for electrode maintenance.
In this application report, we tell about the design and advantages of using microflow-based consumables for Automated Patch Clamp.
Learn how the QPlate materials make it possible to create giga-ohm seals with physiological solutions. See data demonstrating that 100% solution exchange can be achieved with 20 µL of solution.
Learn about the QPlate design and its performance here.
— QPatch, Qube384
VP R&D and Marketing at Sophion, Thomas Binzer, on automated patch clamp, marketing in science and building bridges with academia
If you are curious to know more about Sophions’ APC robots and their use in industry and academia, please read Artem Kondratskyis’ interview with our ur VP R&D and MKTG, Thomas Binzer which can be found online on the ionchannellibrary.com.
An interview about automated patch clamp, academic collaborations and why we are using all those Qs in our names.
— drug discovery, ion channels, QPatch, Qube
User Meeting (virtual) – hosted by Sophion NA
The event will be from 11:00 am to 3:30 pm on the 22nd of September, 2020.
On 5th July 2000, Sophion Bioscience was founded as a spin-off from the Danish pharmaceutical company NeuroSearch. It is hard to believe that 20 years have passed.
From the annals on our servers and a carefully written diary by Sophion’s first CEO Torsten Freltoft, it is fascinating to follow the first years after the founding. As with all start-ups chasing capital was a part of everyday life to secure the development of what ended up being QPatch. Also, longer entries about Fussball-tournaments and fun nights out at conferences take up a lot of space and of course the inauguration of the new facilities that were opened in 2001.
With the launch of the QPatch in 2005, Sophion started manufacturing, and focus changed from securing capital for development to securing global growth. Around that time someone wrote in one of those vision statements, that were very popular in the ’00s, that potential users of the APC systems not only needed the system and measurement plates but that strong support from application scientists and field service engineers was needed by users and lacking from other vendors. Today, 16 years later we operate from the same principles, ensuring that our users are always supported by a dedicated team of Application Scientists and Field Service Engineers.
In the years from 2005-2010 new installs were booming and Sophion was on the list of fastest-growing companies in Denmark for four consecutive years. While production was busy ensuring supply for new users, R&D continued new developments on the QPatch introducing, among others, the worlds-first automated Rs compensation, ligand applications, QPatch HT (48), multi-hole QPlates and current clamp. All features that are now standard on all Sophion products and most commercially available platforms.
In 2011 a major transformation occurred when Sophion was integrated with Biolin Scientific. Although ‘only’ 11 years old at that point it forced Sophion to grow-up quickly as a company and we still benefit today from the professionalism and structure that was introduced in the Biolin years. A more efficient supply chain and financial reporting system, as well as our ISO 9001 certification, are all processes that we enjoy today and that made us better equipped for the future.
When Qube 384 was introduced in 2014 it changed the way ion channel drug discovery could be done. With 384 individual channels, patch-clamp experiments running primary screening could suddenly be performed. With the introduction of the stacker solution in 2015, it became possible to perform overnight unattended screens of up to 15 QChips, something which is performed routinely by leading CROs and pharma companies on Qube 384 today.
However, the integration into a larger corporation was not a commercial success, and in 2017 a management buyout resulted in Sophion again being “masters in our own house”. After that, things have speeded up again, as many of our current and new partners have noticed. With the introduction of QPatch II 48, QPatch II 16, Qube Opto, online V½ estimation, and the new improved temperature controller, our APC systems are now easier than ever to use, with more advanced features. Double-digit growth, year on year, for the past 4 years has put us in an interesting new situation where we are running more EU projects, more industry partnerships, and more academic collaborations than ever.
In 2020 Sophion Bioscience is stronger than ever, and despite a challenging “Corona-quarter” in Q2-2020”, the future looks bright and promising. While parts of the world are still in lockdown, the crates shipped from Copenhagen in the past few weeks are a sure sign that other parts of the world are opening up again.
With Qube and QPatch installs in all major pharmaceutical companies we are proud to have left our mark on the ion channel field for the past 20 years and plan to continue doing just that for the next 20 years as well.
“Good habits formed at youth make all the difference”
We do not know what the future holds. In the first twenty years, we have managed not only to bring the world’s best APC platforms to market, combining high performance and data quality with a design that makes them so easy to use that patch clamping is accessible to everybody. We promised back then to “take the voodoo out of patch clamping”, and we believe we have achieved just that.
What we can promise you for the future; We will continue to be inquisitive and innovative. We will continue to push the boundaries, enabling ion channel drug discovery and adjacent fields by combining ease-of-use with performance. We will do that while honouring the vision from 2004 because we ‘choose to focus on customer support’.
An increasing number of patents using QPatch data are published worldwide. More than 350 patent families have been published with the support of QPatch high-quality electrophysiology data since 2005. Last year alone 60 patent families were published supported with QPatch data and the rate of patents filed per year is increasing.
The majority of the patents are filed in the US (46%), with Japan and the UK as follow-ups (11% each) and Switzerland in close pursuit (10%). The remaining 22% comes from a variety of countries with China as the prominent with 5% of the patent filings and then Germany, Italy, Denmark, Sweden etc.
Not surprisingly the majority of patent applications come from big pharma like Shionogi, Dainippon, Novartis, AstraZeneca, J&J and Gilead, but surprisingly, many smaller pharmaceutical companies use the QPatch data as a part of their patent filing.
We are of course happy that QPatch is used actively, not only for drug discovery, compound characterization and cardiac safety studies, but are also that QPatch data is used in the patent filings worldwide.
— QPatch, Qub, Sophion Use Academy
Don’t miss the next Sophion User Academy in Copenhagen
Do you want to get the latest tips and tricks on your Qube or QPatch?
Our next Sophion User Academy will take place on 22nd April at our premises in Copenhagen. Later this year we will also have the Sophion User Academy in both the United States and in Japan this Autumn so stay posted.
Contact your Application Scientist or send us an email if you want to learn more. We are here to help you. We can also help with arranging accommodation during your stay in Copenhagen.
New assay created by Metrion: Nav1.5(Late) cardiac safety on QPatch
Using the QPatch, Metrion has created and validated a NaV1.5(late) assay that removes the requirement for pharmacological enhancers of NaV1.5(Late) and, thereby, delivers improved cardiac safety screening reliability and cost. Read the report here.
— hIPSC, QPatch, Qube
hiPSC motor neurons on Qube and QPatch
Neurological diseases like Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis are detrimental in their nature and not easy to treat. In the search for new interventions it is necessary with model systems to test molecules, genetic modifiers etc. We can record both healthy, diseased and rescued hiPSC on our instruments. Read more here.
1 - 6 March
— automated patch clamp, ion channels, ipsc-derived motor neurons, QPatch, Qube, Sophion
Biophysical Society 63rd Annual Meeting 2019
As always at Biophysics we have a lot of activities going on. Please see below.
Friday, 1st March
Ion Channel Satellite Meeting
Sophion will be co-hosting the recurring satellite meeting, Drug Discovery for Ion Channels. Read more about the meeting here.
Saturday, 2nd March
Monday, 4th March
01:45 PM – Poster presentation:
Title: IPSC-derived motor neurons on the automated patch clamp platforms Qube and QPatch
Location: Exhibit Hall A-E – Poster board No.: B332
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can be differentiated into multiple cell types, including neurons and cardiomyocytes. This gives rise to a novel way of establishing human disease models, which in turn can be used for drug development in vitro. Ion channels represent highly attractive therapeutic targets in the nervous and the cardiovascular system, rendering electrophysiological studies of hiPSCs important for their usage in drug discovery. However, such studies have traditionally been limited by the labor-intensive and low-throughput nature of patch-clamp electrophysiology. Here we use our automated patch clamp systems Qube 384 and QPatch 48 in order to increase throughput and reduce timelines. Our observations include channel expression versus time in culture, the pharmacological dissection of endogenous ion channels (e.g. Nav and Kv), identification of ligand-gated receptors, and recordings of action potentials using the current clamp feature. Also, we show the electrophysiology of a spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) model. The disease model for SMA was derived by mutations in the SMN1 gene and shows enhanced sodium channel activity but no shift in the normalized current-voltage relationship. ALS was here mimicked by a single point mutation in the superoxide dismutase 1 protein (SOD1), D90A, which had previously been identified in recessive, dominant and seemingly sporadic pedigrees. Cells carrying this point mutation displayed larger sodium currents, which eventually led to neurofilament aggregation, neurite degeneration and other phenotypes. We could confirm that the electrophysiological effect could be reversed by point mutation to D90D.
Our measurements validate the feasibility of measuring hiPSC ion channel currents using the APC platforms Qube and QPatch. Altogether, these results can facilitate evaluating the use of hiPSC for early drug development and in extension personal medicine.
Tuesday, 5th March
9:30-11:00 AM – Sophion will be hosting a mini ion channel symposium in Room A at Baltimore conference center titled:
Electrophysiological characterization using automated patch clamp (QPatch and Qube) of hiPSC-derived neurological disease models, new automated patch clamp ion channel assays for CiPA cardiac safety testing (dynamic hERG and LQT3 late NaV1.5) and NaV1.7 drug discovery.
Marc Rogers (Metrion Bioscience): Milnes and late Nav1.5 for cardiac safety,
Sarah Williams (Charles River): Adaptive online V½ estimation.
01:45 PM – Poster presentation:
Title: Biophysical and pharmacological profiling of multiple voltage-gated sodium channel subtypes on QPatch II
Poster presenter: Application scientist Daniel Sauter
Location: Exhibit Hall A-E – Poster board No.: B285
Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) are responsible for the initiation and propagation of action potentials in excitable cells. VGSC have been identified as excellent drug targets for treatment of pain, epilepsy and to other neurological disorders. Early compounds, however, were developed using empirical approaches. The identification of the molecular identity of VGSC in combination with technological advances, such as the automated patch clamp technique, provide the basis for a rational design of subtype-selective compounds.
To date, 9 functional mammalian isoforms (NaV1.1–1.9) have been described in the literature. The various subtypes differ in their expression pattern and exhibit distinct biophysical and pharmacological profiles. All have in common that they produce a transient inward current in response to membrane depolarization. During this process, the VGSC transitions from a closed to an open into an inactivated state. Interestingly, inhibitor compounds often exhibit different pharmacological profiles dependent upon the ion channel conformational state.
In the present study, the second generation QPatch (QPatch II; Sophion Bioscience) was used in combination with adaptive voltage protocols to investigate state-dependent inhibition of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and tetracaine on 8 different VGSC subtypes (NaV1.1-8). A first step was to determine the half-inactivation potential V½(inactivation) for each individual cell. This value was then used during the next steps as preconditioning pulse. Such an adaptive protocol allowed to determine IC50 values for both the closed and the inactivated state and reduce heterogeneity of the cells. Both IC50 values and biophysical parameters of the different subtypes align well with literature values.
2 - 6 February
— QPatch, Qube
Make sure to come and see us at booth #1703 at SLAS2019 in Washington DC. The conference will take place at the Walter E. Washington Convention Center.
To reflect our growing customer base in Japan we are happy to introduce our new Japanese version of www.sophion.com. The new Japanese website ensures that also our Japanese customers and partners have access to our publication database with posters, publications and application reports, as well as our application database where you can browse content grouped by ion channel type or disease area.
5 - 6 September
— automated patch clamp, Drug Discover, ion channels, QPatch, Qube, User Meeting
Sophion User Meeting 2018 – Europe
Join us for a couple of days of great QPatch and Qube talks and good company
We are happy to invite you to our European Sophion User Meeting on 5th and 6th September 2018 and we are very pleased to announce that GSK in Stevenage kindly has offered to host the meeting this year.
We are preparing an interesting programme starting at noon on 5th September giving everyone a chance to travel to Stevenage in the morning. Wrap-up on 6th September just around lunchtime.
More information about the meeting will follow shortly.
Make sure to register for the meeting now as there are a limited number of seats.
— hCav1.2, QPatch
hCav1.2 recordings using QPatch
The development of screening assays for the CaV1.2 channel has been challenging due to the tendency of the channel to exhibit declining current levels (rundown) during the experiment. Here we report about a robust CaV1.2 QPatch assay yielding high success rates, low rundown and reliable pharmacology.
Pharmacology and current-voltage relationship in accordance with literature values
Success rates of up to 98%
Stable currents with rundown as low as 2% per minute
GABAA pharmacology on cell lines and primary astrocytes on QPatch
In this new Sophion Application report GABA receptor pharmacology was evaluated on QPatch. We did thorough compound evaluations in a GABAA(α5β3γ2) cell line and investigated the GABA response of primary hippocampal rat astrocytes with emphasis on:
Effects of agonists, antagonists, and modulators
EC50 and IC50 determination
Characterizing both the pharmacology of a specific isolated GABAA subtype and the physiological GABA response of cultured rat astrocytes
— BPS18, ion channels, QPatch, Qube
Biophysics 2018 – here we come!
Time flies and soon BPS2018 will kick-off in San Francisco. We look forward to see you in San Francisco and hope that you will join us for the below events:
Satellite meeting – Friday, February 16th
Beer tasting and dining – Saturday, February 17th
Sophion Ion Channel meeting – Tuesday, February 20th
Poster presentation – Wednesday, February 21st
Read much more about each event here and make sure to sign up as the seats fill up quickly.
— ion channels, QPatch, Qube, User Meeting
Sophion User Meeting, Boston – Save the date!
We are still working with the agenda but can, at this point, reveal that we have the pleasure of having Julie Klint, Lundbeck as one of several speakers. Julie will give a talk titled: Finding NaV1.1 activators – development and validation of a HTS suitable assay on the Qube. Also Noah Shuart from Xenon will be giving a talk.
Hilton Boston/Woburn, 2 Forbes Rd. Woburn, MA 01801
11.30 AM Registration and lunch buffet
01.00 PM Dr Kelly Gatfield, GSK: Tools for drug discovery: Early safety profiling and electrophysiology platforms for reducing attrition
01.30 PM Dr Julie Klint, Lundbeck: Finding NaV1.1 activators – development and validation of a HTS suitable assay for the Qube 384
02.00 PM Dr Noah Shuart, Xenon: Using Qube to assess IPSC neuronal sodium currents and studying mechanism of VSD4 binding ligands in heterologous expression systems
02.30 PM Coffee break
03.00 PM Bryan Koci, Eurofins: Optimization of cardiac safety pharmacology assay on the QPatch HT
03.30 PM Dr Kris Kahlig, Praxis Precision Medicines: Benchmarking Eleclazine: Biophysical characterization of a cardiac late INa inhibitor
04.00 PM Dr Mads P G Korsgaard, Sophion Bioscience A/S: Update on Qube 384
04.30 PM Dr Daniel Sauter, Sophion Bioscience, Inc.: Light stimulated electrophysiology on Qube: applications for ligand-gated ion channels
05.30 PM Wine tasting and tapas
08.30 AM Registration and coffee
09.00 AM Dr Kathryn Henckels, Amgen: Development of a TMEM16A QPatch assay for assessing small molecule antagonists
09.30 AM Dr Robert Petroski, Dart: Using the QPatch HTX for lead optimization of ligand-gated ion channels
10.00 AM Coffee break
10.30 AM Dr Haoyu Zeng, Merck: Systematic Performance Comparison between QPatch and PatchXpress for Cardiac Ion Channel Assays, and GLP-readiness Evaluation of QPatch for the CiPA Paradigm
11.00 AM Dr Rasmus B Jacobsen, Sophion Bioscience A/S: QPatch, Past, Present and Future
— ICMS2018, ion channel modulation symposium, QPatch, Qube
Registration for ICMS2018 is now open
Wednesday and Thursday 20th and 21st June, 2018 Sophion will be arranging and hosting the third Ion Channel Modulation Symposium at Clare College in Cambridge (UK) and it is now possible to register for the event.
We look forward to seeing you in Cambridge next June.
Five new QPatch publications from top pharma companies
The past month five new publications has been published from GSK, Pfizer, Gilead, Lundbeck and Acesion Pharma.
Donovan et Al 2017 – Discovery and electrophysiological characterization of SKF-32802: A novel hERG agonist found through a large-scale structural similarity search
Jenkinson et Al 2017- Cardiac sodium channel antagonism – Translation of preclinical in vitro assays to clinical QRS prolongation
Diness et Al 2017 – Termination of vernakalant-resistant atrial fibrillation by inhibition of small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels in pigs
El-Bizri et Al 2017 – Eleclazine exhibits enhanced selectivity for long QT syndrome type 3–associated late Na+ current
Schoubye et Al 2017 – The sodium channel activator Lu AE98134 normalizes the altered firing properties of fast spiking interneurons in Dlx5/6+/− mice
— biophysics, ion channels, QPatch, Qube
Biophysical Society 62nd Annual Meeting
We look forward to Biophysics 2018 where we will be doing a lot of activities:
First of all you can meet with our ion channel experts at our booth #518 at the Moscone Center.
Friday, 16th February Sophion will be hosting the annually recurring satellite meeting, Drug Discovery for Ion Channels.
See the agenda for the meeting here and make sure to sign up as the spaces are limited.
Beer Tasting & Dinner
Saturday, 17th February we have the pleasure of inviting you to an informal evening of beer tasting, good food and great networking at the Bartlett Hall in San Francisco.
Make sure to sign up for this event here. Limited number of seats so be quick.
Ion Channel Mini Symposium
Tuesday, 20th February we will be having a short meeting at the conference center with the presentation title: Drug discovery and electrophysiological characterization using automated patch clamp (QPatch).
Venue: Room 6, Moscone Center, San Francisco – sign up here for the meeting:
10:30 – 11:00
Dr Damian Bell, Iontas Ltd. Efficient ion channel cell line generation using MaxCyte electroporation and QPatch validation
11:00 – 11:30
Dr Daniel Sauter, Application Scientist, Sophion Bioscience A/S Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (Cor.4U) characterized on an automated planar patch clamp set up (QPatch HT)
11:30 – 12:00
Dr Alan Wickenden, Scientific Director & Fellow, Molecular & Cellular Pharmacology, Janssen R&D, L.L.C NaViGATING the long and winding road to new analgesics: Discovery of potent, selective, closed-state peptide Nav1.7 blockers
Refreshments will be served.
Wednesday, 21st February between 10.30 AM and 11.30 AM, Dr Daniel Sauter will present a poster titled:
Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (Cor.4U) characterized on an automated planar patch clamp setup (QPatch HT)
Poster board no. B301
18 - 20 October
— CiPA, Patch Clamping, QPatch, Qube, User Meeting
Sophion Seminar & Workshop – Japan
You are invited to the Sophion Seminar & Workshop in Japan at Sophion Bioscience K.K.’s premises:
Waseda Research Park
1011 Nishitomida, Honjo, Saitama 367-0035, Japan
10:30 Welcome remarks and safety briefing Dr. Yuji Tsurubuchi, Country Manager, Sophion Bioscience K.K., Japan
10:40 New ownership and future strategy at Sophion (tentative) Mr. Thais Johansen, CEO, Sophion Bioscience A/S, Denmark
11:00 Educational lecture: Redox Physiology of TRP channels Prof. Yasuo Mori, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Department of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Japan
12:00 Lunch break and new Sophion K.K. lab tour
Each participant is assigned to either group A or B at the time of registration. The tour starts at 12:00 and 12:45 for group A and B, respectively. Lunch is served for group A after the tour.
13:30 Potency of ReproNeuro “Human iPS derived neurons” in the drug discovery support Dr. Makoto Honda, ReproCELL, Inc., Japan
13:50 iPS derived human cells; iCel®, MyCell® DDP/ “disease in a dish” and ideas of application for drug discovery Dr. Ko Zushida, Cellular Dynamics International Japan Co., Ltd.
14:20 Using the QPatch HTX to drive drug discovery: ligand-gated ion channels Dr. Robert E. Petroski, Scientist IV/Manager Neurophysiology, Dart Neuroscience LLC, USA
15:00 Coffee break
15:30 Targeting T-type calcium channel for anti-pain drug discovery Dr. Norio Hashimoto, Nissan Chemical Industries, Ltd., Japan
16:10 Exemplar of optical recording from neural and cardiac activities Mr. Kenji Tsubokura, Brain Vision Co., Ltd., Japan
We are proud to share with you an article published in Tecans latest journal about Sophion and our work with the QPatch. You can read the article here.
— ion channel, Kca2.X, publication, QPatch
New paper on KCa2.X (SK) on QPatch
Small conductance calcium-activated K+ channels (KCa2.X, SK channels) are promising new targets for the treatment of Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common type of arrhythmia. In a collaboration with Acesion Pharma, Bo Bentzen and his group revealed an inhibitory effect of some established AF drugs on SK channels using Sophion`s QPatch. The paper benefits from QPatch`s capability to gain gigaohm seal resistances without relying on the presence of seal enhancing fluoride in the internal solution.
— automated patch clamp, drug discovery, ion channels, neuroscience, patch clamp, pioneering ion channels, QPatch
See you at Neuroscience 2017, the world’s largest neuroscience conference for scientists and physicians devoted to understanding the brain and nervous system. You can find us at booth #823 where we look forward to meet you for an ion channel talk.
Venue: Walter E. Washington Convention Center, Washington, DC
Voltage- and current clamp on induced pluripotent cardiomyocytes with Qube 384
Action potentials are induced in both HL-1 mouse atrial cardiomyocytes and Axiogenesis Cor.4U iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes.
Voltage- and current clamp on induced pluripotent cardiomyocytes with Qube 384. Action potentials are induced in both HL-1 mouse atrial cardiomyocytes and Axiogenesis Cor.4U iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Qube can combine voltage clamp and current clamp in the same sweep for added experimental control. Click here to read more.